Technology is changing the way organizations and their people should do their jobs. There is little empirical evidence for this. The aim of this study is to give an overview of the effects of technological developments on job characteristics and to derive consequences for the demand for workers and professional training. Answers to the following research questions:
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What influence do new technologies have on job characteristics? What are the effects of CPD? Technologies, defined as digital, electrical or mechanical tools that affect task performance at work, are considered in various disciplines such as sociology and psychology. A theoretical framework was developed based on theories from these disciplines (e.g., skill enhancement, task-based approach), and claims were made about the relationship between technology and job characteristics such as complexity, autonomy, or importance.
A systematic literature search was carried out using searchable databases in the fields of psychology, sociology, economics and education. Twenty-one studies met the inclusion criteria. Using a model that illustrates elements of the learning environment, empirical evidence was extracted and its impact on job requirements and professional development derived. There is evidence of an increase in complexity and mental work, especially when working with automated systems and robots. In many cases manual labor has decreased.
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Workload and workflow interruptions increase with battery life, especially with digital communications devices. Role expectations and development opportunities depend on the relationship between the profession and technology, especially when working with automated systems. Implications for the work demands required to cope with changes in work characteristics include technology proficiency. Openness to change and technology, self and time management skills, and professional and later career development. Implications for the design of formal learning environments (i.e. content, method, assessment and guidance). Include that these job requirements need to be part of the training content and that teachers/trainers need to be able to facilitate these job requirements. And that instructional models are used Learning environments must be flexible in use.